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That is what is known as the typical "hypothetical question" wherein an expert is asked to assume a series of facts stated by the direct examiner (or cross-examiner) and erectile dysfunction treatment dallas discount himcolin 30 gm with visa, after these facts have been stated xyzal erectile dysfunction purchase himcolin 30 gm overnight delivery, the expert is asked whether he or she has an opinion based on these facts erectile dysfunction rates age order 30 gm himcolin with visa. These two forms of expert evidence have long been sanctioned by the common law of evidence. The second sentence of Rule 703 represents a change from what previously was the law. Normally, if an expert has arrived at an opinion based on facts that the expert was told by someone else, the basis for that opinion is "hearsay" and, at one time, such an opin, ion was inadmissible in most state and federal jurisdictions. When the Federal Rules of Evidence were written, the drafters decided to do away with this long-standing prohibition and to permit opinion testimony based on hearsay, provided the hearsay is of the kind that experts in the particular field rely on to make ordinary professional decisions in their careers. But the judge decides whether the jury may be informed about that potentially inadmissible evidence. For example, a crime scene investigator develops a latent print at a crime scene, submits a lift or photograph of the latent print to the laboratory, and then advises the expert as to how and what method was used to process the evidence. In such a case, the expert may testify to the development method used by the investigator even though the expert was not present when the latent print was made visible. Generally speaking, lay (nonexpert) witnesses may offer opinion testimony in those cases where their opinions are (1) rationally based on their perception and (2) when to do so would be helpful to the jury. Thus, nonexpert witnesses may offer the kind of opinions that ordinary persons would make in their daily lives. Lay witnesses who testify can utter opinions like, "he was drunk" or "he was going way too, fast" or "I could hear everything through the wall and they, were having an argument". The law prohibits lay persons, however, from offering opinions on the ultimate issue to be determined. For example, an opinion that "the defendant was grossly negligent" is not considered to be "helpful" to the jurors in forming their own conclusions (rather, it attempts to draw the conclusion for them) and is therefore not permitted. It may be that all persons witnessing the same occurrence would have come to the same conclusion, and therefore the opinion was rationally based on perception. Nevertheless, the type of opinion by a lay witness that goes to the ultimate issue is not permitted under Rule 701. The admissibility of expert opinion testimony by a friction ridge examiner and about friction ridge examinations will be governed by Rule 702. These instructions will cover many topics appropriate for the testimony provided and the charges proffered. If expert witness testimony is provided, it is almost certain that the judge will include instructions regarding this type of testimony as well. The following is a typical jury instruction related to expert witness testimony: You have heard the testimony of experts in this case. The credibility or worth of the testimony of an expert witness is to be considered by you just as it is your duty to judge the credibility or worth of the testimony of all other witnesses you have heard or evidence you have seen. You are not bound to accept expert testimony as true, and you may weigh and credit testimony of expert witnesses the same as that of other witnesses, and give it the weight to which you think it is entitled. One or more additional instructions on the duty of the jury in weighing evidence may be given. It is also permissible for the judge to supplement the standard expert witness jury instruction with special provisions more applicable to a particular case. However, in charging the jury, the judge may not refer to the testimony of any particular witness and may not single out certain testimony or evidence. Two of these cases apply uniformly across the country as a matter of constitutional law; the third was decided by the 9th Circuit Court of Appeals in an unpublished decision, which is therefore technically not entitled to precedential value. Materiality of the evidence means that there is a reasonable probability that had the evidence been disclosed in a proceeding, the result of the proceeding would have been different. If the prosecution is uncertain whether certain materials requested by the defense must be disclosed, it may ask the court to inspect the material in chambers to make that determination. In effect, if a fingerprint expert knows of any information from an examination of the evidence that could be considered exculpatory to the accused, such information must be provided to the prosecutor and, ultimately, to the court and defense. In United States v Henthorn, the Circuit Court of Appeals for the 9th Circuit ruled that the government has a duty to review the personnel files of its testifying officers and to disclose to the defense any information which may be favorable to the defendant that meets appropriate standards of materiality. Obviously, this is information that would go to the qualifications of the experts. Such matters as past errors, required retraining, or any actions that may reflect on the integrity or credibility of the expert are susceptible to this ruling.

War Crimes and Crimes against Humanity By decree of 29 May 1941 Bormann took over the offices and powers held by Hess; by the decree of 24 January 1942 these were extended to give him control over all laws and directives issued by Hitler keppra impotence order himcolin 30 gm on line. On 1 December 1942 all Gaue became Reich defense districts erectile dysfunction treatment toronto himcolin 30gm with amex, and the Party Gauleiters responsible to Bormann were appointed Reich Defense Commissioners erectile dysfunction 34 year old male order line himcolin. This was so not only in Germany, but also in those territories which were incorporated into the Reich from the absorbed and conquered territories. Throggh this mechanism Bormann controlled the ruthless exploitations of the subjected populace. And on 8 May 1942 he conferred with Hitler and Rosenberg on the forced resettlement of Dutch personnel in Latvia, the extermination program in Russia, and the economic exploitation of the Eastern territories. His letter of 11 January 1944 called for the creation of a large scale organization to withdraw commodities from the occupied territories for the bombed-out German populace. Bormann was extremely active in the persecution of the Jews, not only in Germany but also in the absorbed and conquered coun- tries. He signed the decree of 31 May 1941 extending the Nuremberg Laws to the annexed Eastern territcries. In an s d e r of 9 October 1942 he declared that the permanent elimination of Jews in Greater German territory could no longer be solved by emigration, but only by applying "ruthless force" in the special camps in the East. The Party leaders supervised slave labor matters in the respective Gaue, including employment, conditions of work, feeding, and housing. A report of 4 September 1942 relating to the transfer of 500,000 female domestic workers from the East to Germany showed that control was to be exercised by Sauckel, Himmler, and Bormann. Sauckel by decree of 8 September directed the Kreisleiter to supervise the distribution and assignment of th,ese female laborers. Bormann also issued a series of orders to the Party leaders dealing with the treatment of prisoners of war. On 25 November 1943 he directed Gauleiter to report cases of lenient treatment of prisoners of war. And on 13 September 1944 he ordered liaison b e t w e e ~ Kreisleiter with the camp commandants in deterthe mining the use to be made of prisoners of war for forced labor. On 30 May 1944 he prohibited any police action or criminal proceedings against persons who had taken part in the lynching of Allied fliers. His Counsel, who has labored under difficulties, was unable to refute this evidence. Counsel has argued that Bormann is dead and that the Tribunal should not avail itself of Article 12 of the Charter, which gives it the right to take proceedings in abse,ntia. But the evidence of death is not conclusive, and the Tribunal, a s previously stated, is determined to try him in absentia. Conclusion the Tribunal finds that Bormann is not guilty on Count One, but is guilty on Counts Three and Four. I n this respect I can not agree with the decision adopted by the Tribunal as it does not correspond to the facts of the case and is based on incorrect conclusions. The Unfounded Acquittal of Defendant Schacht the evidence, submitted to the Tribunal in the case of Schacht, confirms the following facts: a) Schacht established contact with Goring in December 1930 and with Hitler at the beginning of 1931. He subsequently established contact between the leadership of the Nazi Party and the foremost representatives of the German industrial and financial circles. On 12 November 1932 Schacht wrote to Hitler: "I have no doubt that the way we are directing the course of events can only lead to your appointment as Reich Chancellor. We are trying to secure a large number of signatures among the industrial circles to ensure your appointment to this post. Schacht admitted in Court that he had pointed out the necessity for providing the Nazi leaders with this sum (Transcript, Afternoon Session, 3 May 1946), while the Defendant Funk and the former member of the management of "I. Farbenindustrie" Schnitzler, who were present a t this conference, both confirmed that. Thus, Schacht consciously and deliberately supported the Nazi Party and actively aided in the seizure of power in Ge~nzany the by Fascists. A special decree granted Schacht, in his capacity of Reich Minister of Economy, unlimited authority in the field of economy (Reichsgesetzblatt, 1934, Part 1, p. Having become the Plenipotentiary General for War Economy, Schacht unified under himself the leadership of the entire Gelman economy and through his efforts the establishment of the Hitlerite war machine was accomplished. The Plenipotentiary General for War Economy within the framework of his functions is given the right to issue legal orders, deviating from the existing laws. Summarizing his past activity, Schacht wrote in January 1937: "I worked out the preparation for war m accordance with the principle that the plan of our war economy must be built in peace time in such a way that there will be no necessity for any reorganization in case of war".

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The anastomotic technique chosen by Carrel was the triangulation technique using three anchoring sutures impotent rage quotes safe 30 gm himcolin, in a manner similar to current practice causes for erectile dysfunction and its symptoms purchase line himcolin. William Halsted was interested in operative procedures performed on the vascular system and encouraged Bertram Moses Bernheim impotence curse buy generic himcolin 30gm line, a faculty member at Johns Hopkins Hospital, to investigate this area. This technique overcame the difficulties posed by the unavailability of suture attached directly to the needle. Bernheim took vascular surgery instruments and suture material to Europe during World War I but concluded that vascular repair was not feasible under combat conditions. Direct suture repair or replacement of injured blood vessels with reversed saphenous vein conduits became feasible for surgeons caring for injured soldiers in the Korean War. In addition to lacerations and transections, contusions, true aneurysm formation, false aneurysm formation, intimal flaps, and arteriovenous fistulas are possible. The extent of clinical symptoms varies according to the type of injuring agent, the extent of force transfer, the degree of associated skeletal and soft tissue injury, the presence of concomitant venous injury, the effects of collateral circulation, and the amount of previous and ongoing blood loss. General Aspects of Peripheral Vascular Injuries Vascular injuries are encountered uncommonly in civilian trauma practice. Major arterial injuries requiring intervention are observed in less than 5% of the total population of injured patients. Most vascular injuries involve arteries and veins of the extremities; the clinical guidance article by Feliciano and coauthors1 cited data confirming that up to 70% of vascular injuries seen in U. Additional data cited by the authors showed that most extremity vascular injuries are due to penetrating mechanisms. Low-velocity gunshot wounds cause 50% of these injuries and stab wounds cause 30% of the injuries. Blunt vascular injury frequencies vary from 5% to 25% of those reported, depending on the data source. The main danger of extremity vascular injuries is mortality due to exsanguination. With continued military and civilian efforts to increase the use of wound compression and tourniquets to control bleeding in the prehospital and early inpatient care phases, death from exsanguination has decreased. Data supporting the benefit of tourniquet use to reduce blood loss from combatrelated vascular injuries were presented in an article by Kragh and coauthors13 in Annals of Surgery, 2009. The authors conducted a prospective study of tourniquet use at a single military hospital in Iraq. The data analysis disclosed that prehospital tourniquet application before development of hemorrhagic shock after extremity injury was associated with a mortality of 10%, while delayed tourniquet application after arrival at the hospital had a mortality risk of 24%. All delayed tourniquet applications were in patients with clinical signs of shock. Passos and coauthors14 focused on using tourniquets to control bleeding in civilian vascular injuries in Injury, 2014. The article was a retrospective review of data from two Canadian trauma centers; outcomes in 190 patients seen over a nine-year interval were recorded. Eight patients in this group had tourniquets applied in the prehospital phase of care or within one hour of arrival at the hospital; all eight patients survived. Six patients with massive blood loss did not have tourniquets applied and all died. The authors concluded that their data suggests a potential benefit for tourniquet use in patients with extremity vascular injuries and massive hemorrhage. Prolongation of the interval from injury to revascularization beyond six hours, overall injury severity, and the extent of skeletal, neurologic, and soft tissue damage (usually reported as the mangled extremity score) have been cited as predictors of limb loss in patients with lower extremity injuries. Data cited by Feliciano and coauthors1 show that penetrating injury results in amputation in 2%­6% of patients. Blunt injuries result in limb loss in 10%­20% of patients mainly because of associated fractures and extensive nerve and soft tissue injuries. The abiding belief among surgeons caring for patients with extremity vascular injuries is that injuries to upper extremity vessels do not carry the same limbloss risks as injuries to lower extremity vessels. Possible reasons for improved results in upper extremity injuries include more effective collateral circulation in the upper extremity, redundancy of the innervation to distal extremity structures, and observed lower frequency of postrevascularization compartment syndromes.

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