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The geochemical and isotopic data are consistent with conceptual and numerical groundwater models near Sturgeon Bay menstrual cycle day 1-4 purchase cheap gyne-lotrimin online. Both the field study and the numerical model show that the dolomite aquifer responds very rapidly to precipitation events pregnancy rash cheap gyne-lotrimin 100 mg free shipping. Advective transport simulations using particle tracking produce concentration breakthrough curves consistent with field results womens health zambia generic gyne-lotrimin 100 mg free shipping. The series of projects undertaken in Door County has implications for groundwater investigation, management, and protection in other parts of Wisconsin where fractured carbonate rock occurs near the land surface. The funding agencies hope to continue to develop improved methodologies to make groundwater quality, quantity and contaminant source data more readily available. These computer models, which cover entire counties or multiple counties, simulate current and future groundwater conditions and are being used to evaluate how current and future groundwater pumping affects regional water levels and also how groundwater use affects shallow lakes, streams, and wetlands. These regional models, which provide a modern hydrogeologic framework for large-scale groundwater movement have stimulated a number of significant research projects by other investigators (Mickelson 1994-95; Bradbury et al. These investigators have used the model as a starting point for more detailed flow models of specific problems or areas of the county. The Dane County county or multi-county models have been applied to regional groundwater issues in other parts of Wisconsin including Sauk, Rock, Eau Claire, Fond du Lac, St. Such models are critical tools in the planning process, and allow water managers to evaluate the impacts of various future water management and land use alternatives in order to make well-informed water-use and land-use decisions. Delineation of 5-year zones of contribution for municipal wells in La Crosse County, Wisconsin: Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey Open-File Report 2003-02, 42 p. Numerical Simulation of Ground-Water Flow in La Crosse County, Wisconsin and into Nearby Pools of the Mississippi River. Final reports and studies in progress provide information or products that will be important for future efforts aimed at controlling or attenuating groundwater contamination in Wisconsin. Several projects have focused on developing new techniques for detecting, quantifying, and monitoring microorganisms in groundwater and soils. Because they have the capacity to co-metabolize a wide variety of organic chemicals, including halogenated compounds, methanotrophic bacteria have significant potential for bioremediation. The study provided evidence to expand the allowable storage time of water samples submitted for E. A change to a maximum holding time of chilled samples for up to 30 hours could easily be supported by the data presented in this study. The data also called into question the current practice of allowing up to 48 hours for submitting drinking water samples with no attempt to cool them. A reduction in the time period to 30 hours, or a requirement to ship the samples at less than 10 degrees C, could be supported by the data. The efforts of this study resulted in the development of a high quality plating media for selecting viable H. In general, infectious diarrhea was not associated with drinking from private wells, nor was it associated with drinking from wells positive for total coliform. However, wells positive for enterococci were associated with children having diarrhea of unknown etiology, which was likely caused by Norwalk-like viruses. Final results indicate that the incidence of virus contamination in private wells may affect 4-12% of private wells. Of concern to drinking water regulators is the seasonal variability of the virus occurrences and lack of correspondence between viral presence and common microbial indicators. As with the private well study, there was no correspondence to common indicators of sanitary quality. More surprising, there was no relationship between presence of surface water in the well water samples as determined by isotope analysis and virus occurrence. These findings suggest that viruses may be more common than expected in drinking water samples, although they do not indicate whether the viruses are viable, are inactivated through disinfection processes, or result in illness in the community. Research into the link between virus occurrence and human health is needed to answer these questions. These drawdowns can cause the water level in wells, streams and wetlands to drop or cause them to dry up entirely. Drawdowns can also cause the levels of arsenic, radium (the precursor to radon) and salinity in drinking water to increase.
Braunstein-Bercovitz women's health center muskegon mi buy gyne-lotrimin 100mg mastercard, Dimentman-Ashkenazi breast cancer vaccine buy generic gyne-lotrimin 100 mg line, and Lubow (2001) examined the effect of stress (threats to self esteem) on latent inhibition-the mechanism implicated in attentional processing that underlies the ability to separate relevant from irrelevant information women's health big book of yoga pdf download gyne-lotrimin 100mg for sale. In traditional latent inhibition designs, subjects are first exposed to relevant and irrelevant stimuli. In subsequent trials these subjects are exposed to the same irrelevant stimuli along with a new set of novel stimuli. Subjects tend to take longer in processing the previously-exposed stimuli than they do the novel stimuli. Braunstein-Bercovitz and colleagues placed subjects 40 under low-stress and high-stress conditions, defined by the difficulty of mathematical calculation tasks. Stress was further manipulated by indicating to the subjects that these tasks were highly correlated with general intelligence (these manipulations were validated by self-report). Those in the high-stress condition were provided very difficult problems including some that were unsolvable. Their results suggested that stress caused increases in state anxiety which affected selective attention caused by a disruption in attentional inhibition. This may suggest that subjects were unable to discern task irrelevant information from task relevant information. These findings support the hypothesis that attentional resources are diverted to task irrelevant cues under conditions of stress and anxiety. In an extension of these initial findings, Braunstein-Bercovitz (2003) attempted to further clarify the effects of stress on selective attention. Participants experienced a series of trials, each comprised of a pair of displays. In the low-load condition, three digits appeared on the display screen, the middle was identified as the target stimulus while the two identical digits flanking the target were considered distractors (to be ignored). Conditions were similar under the high-load displays (although using simple shapes instead of digits); however, one of the randomly assigned shapes was superimposed. Following the prime display, subjects experienced a probe display that required them to respond either to the previously primed distractor (one of the flanking digits), the primed target, or a new target (one that was not previously primed). On the other hand, positive priming was considered present by superior performance on the primed target than the control display. The results of the study confirmed the effectiveness of the stress and load manipulations. Moreover, it was found that as stress increased, the negative priming effect diminished. Thus, attentional resources were depleted under the high-load conditions in stressed individuals, resources that might otherwise be allocated to the distractors. This conclusion falls in contradiction with much of the previous literature reviewed on the effects of stress on attention. When workload is relatively low and stress is high, the selective attention effect is present (negative priming is attenuated). On the other hand, when both workload and stress are high, support for the selective attention hypothesis diminishes and the negative priming effect is strong. Attentional Theories and Perspectives Chajut and Algom (2003) reviewed the three main theories of selective attention under stress and the literature support for each theory. This narrowing of attention results in greater focus on the central task which tends to enhance performance. The second, capacity-resource theory, also states that stress narrows attention; however, this is directional in that one attends to whatever is proximal, highly accessible, or automatic (be it relevant or irrelevant to task or goal completion). Finally, the third approach, thought suppression, states that attention is a conscious pursuit but that there is also an unconscious process of automatic search for "to-be-suppressed" material that occurs simultaneously. The ironic aspect of this process is that this sensitizes the individual unconsciously to monitor what he or she should not. This monitoring results 41 in a draw on attentional resources (amplified under stress) which leads to a hypersensitivity toward task-irrelevant cues (the to-be-suppressed thoughts). In order to establish which hypothesis was most explanatory, Chajut and Algom (2003) used the Stroop and reverse Stroop effect within the Garner speeded classification paradigm (a four block trial of various Stroop tasks). Their experiments were conducted under two conditions, low and high stress-task difficulty, using the stress of time pressure and threat to ego as their manipulations. While the Stroop task is the most widely used instrument in the study of selective attention, this paradigm has been challenged by some (MacLeod, 1991). In their review of the Stroop literature, Chajut and Algom cite mixed results-stress facilitates, degrades, and has no impact on performance.
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Previous investigations into memory performance have found negative effects across a variety of putative stressors including: fatigue (Davies & Parasuraman pregnancy nutrition guide gyne-lotrimin 100mg low cost, 1982; Eysenck menopause gift basket order discount gyne-lotrimin, 1985; Gevins & Smith women's health new dimensions cheap gyne-lotrimin online amex, 1999; Kleitman, 1963), alcohol intoxication (Gevins & Smith, 1999), simulated military combat (Lieberman, Bathalon, Falco, Georgelis, Morgan, Niro, & Tharion, 2002), and the thermal stresses of both heat (Hocking, Silberstein, Lau, Stough, & Roberts, 2001) and cold (Giesbrecht, Arnett, Vela, & Bristow, 1993). For example, Giesbrecht, Arnett, Vela, and Bristow (1993) found that after immersion in cold water, tasks requiring minimal cognitive demands remained unaffected (auditory attention, Benton visual recognition, digit span forward); however, those tasks deemed more cognitively challenging, requiring work memory (digit span and the Stroop task), showed significantly degraded performance. Slaven and Windle (1999) devised a unique experimental paradigm-simulating a disabled submarine. These researchers found that under the stress of cold, there were no significant performance decrements on measures of working memory. However, self-report measures suggested that decrements were subjectively perceived. These authors conjectured that motivation, spurred by the presence of peers, may have played a role in mitigating the effects of the cold. This conclusion is consistent with the notion that "misery loves company" whereby sharing a negative experience with others relieves some of the negative effects on the individual. Burrows (2002) examined memory performance under conditions of workload (an increasing list of words) and time pressure (the speeded presentation of information) measuring the accuracy and speed of recall on a recognition test. During the subsequent recognition test, subjects were asked to determine as quickly as possible whether the word appearing was on the previous list or not. Burrows conducted 12 trials, half consisting of target words previously presented and half consisting of new words. After completing these trials each subject was asked to rate their subjective stress level and their perceived level of performance (how well they felt they had done). Burrows then presented a second list of six words instructing the subjects to add these additional words to the original list. Following a similar 12 trials and subsequent 49 self-ratings, these subjects were then presented an additional list of six words. This process continued until each subject had been exposed to 60 words and 120 recognition trials. Self-rating of stress and perceived success at the task were also assessed throughout these iterations. Three days later, each subject was then re-tested (a similar series of memory trials was used). Results from this experiment indicated that memory accuracy gradually decreased as workload (the number of items to be remembered) increased. For example, after exposure to just six words subjects averaged 95% correct upon recognition. This proportion dropped gradually to just over three-fourths after all 60 words had been presented. Similarly, the increase in words to be remembered resulted in a strong correlation with self-rated stress (r =. The author noted that while the drop in memory accuracy was significant and substantial, this decrement was gradual across the accumulation of memory items. Subjective rating of performance accurately represented objective measures, suggesting that subjects were aware of and accurately perceiving their own decremented performance. Burrows also manipulated the length of the word lists from six to 15, 30, 45, and 60 depending on the group. The data resulting from the 120 trial sequence was very similar to the previous set of findings. Memory accuracy dropped gradually to just over 80% after the full 60 words were presented. A similar decline was reported in reaction time (averaging approximately 3ms per word added). During a third experiment, Burrows manipulated the length of the word lists from six to 12, increasing the amount of material to be remembered. Once again, the results of this experiment mimicked the other two, finding a significant, but gradual decline in memory accuracy as the total length of words to be remembered (recognized) increased. The proportion of words recognized after just 12 trials was nearly 95%; however, by the time 60 words had been presented for memory the proportion recognized had dropped to below 80%.